Even a donkey can become a good radiologist, but to be a good person, that’s difficult. – Prof B Rama Subba Raidu

If you found my work useful, please like, follow, rate the blog or post a comment. Your encouragement is what keeps me and this blog going.

Ramakrishna N. [boratsuckdev@yahoo.com] S.R Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences 


1.  Differential diagnosis of mass in right iliac fossa. [JUL 98]

2.  Describe the role of CT in acute abdomen. [JUL 99, 02]

3.  Role of USG in acute abdomen. [02]

4.  Superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

5.  Sonographic findings in abdominal tuberculosis.

6.  Retroperitoneal fibrosis.

7.  Describe imaging in a 5 years old child presenting with lump in Right lumbar region. [JAN 01]

8.  Imaging in blunt abdominal trauma. [02]

9.  Prune belly syndrome. [DEC 02]

10. MDCT application in abdomen. [02]

11. CT in Acute abdomen. [DEC 03]

12. Abdominal trauma . [JUN 04]

13. Imaging of Retroperitonium . [DEC 05]

14. MRI-imaging of Retroperitoneum. [JUN 06]

15. Imaging in retroperitoneal fibrosis. [JUN 07]

16. Role of plain radiography in acute abdomen.

17. Imaging in 9 year old girl presenting with right lower quadrant pain. [09]

18. Draw of neat line diagram of perinephric spaces including its relationship with other spaces. Write CT features of perinephric abscess and urinoma. [June 2008]

19. Enumerate various causes of Para vertebral masses and their imaging features. [Jul 10]

20. Enumerate causes of pain in right iliac fossa i 20 yr old married female. Discuss the role of USG and CT scan in evaluation in this case [June 2011]

21. Enumerate the causes of mechanical small bowl obstruction in an adult. Describe the differentiating features of small and large bowel obstruction on plain radiography. Briefly discuss the role of CT in mechanical small bowel obstruction. [Dec 2012](3+2+5)

22. Briefly describe the etiopathology and imaging findings of ileocecal tuberculosis. Discuss the features that are useful to differentiate it from Crohn’s disease. [Dec 2012](3+2+5)

23. Enumerate various causes of acute pancreatitis. Briefly discuss various terms used in description of imaging findings of acute pancreatitis and indicating it’s severity. [Dec 12](2+6+2)

24. Briefly discuss the development of midgut. Describe the imaging findings of midgut malformation & midgut volvulus on various imaging modalities. [3+3+4 Dec 12]

25. A 40 year old male presents with a lump in the RIF. What would be your approach as a radiologist to help come to a diagnosis? Discuss the characteristic radiological features of any 3 pathologies, presenting with right iliac fossa lump. [1+9 Jun 13]

26. Discuss the DD in a 38 year old male presenting with RIF lump, lassitude & altered bowel habits. Depict the conventional imaging findings in intestinal TB. (4+6 Dec 13)

27. Briefly describe the role of imaging in the following: a) Neuro-endocrine tumors of pancreas b) Small bowel lymphoma. (5+5 Dec 13)


1. CT features in adrenal tumours. [JAN 97]

2. Pheochromocytoma. [JUL 97, JUN 04]

3. Total evaluation techniques for adrenal disease . [JUN 06]

4. Classify adrenal tumours and role of CT & MRI in evaluating them. [DEC 07/09]

5. CT & MRI anatomy of Adrenal glands and normal variants. [09]


1.  Anatomy of urethra. [Jan 97]

2.  Segmental anatomy of liver and its importance. [JUL 97]

3.  Cross-Sectional labeled diagram of Peritoneal Spaces at level of renal hila. [JUL 98]

4.  Cross Sectional Anatomy of Supra Renal level. Enumerate the hormones elaborated by  zones of the Supra renal glands.

5.  Anatomy of Maxillary sinus and classification of various pathologic diseases.

6.  Radiological anatomy of Mediastinum.

7.  Anatomical boundaries of Ant. mediastinum – Role of CT in detection & diagnosis of  anterior Mediastinal Masses.

8.  Radiological anatomy of Sella turcia and imaging features of suprasellar masses. [JUL 99/Dec 2010]

9.  Describe the anatomy of Gastro-oesophageal junction & imaging of hiatus hernia. [JAN 00]

10. Segmental anatomy of Lungs. [JAN 01, 02,10]

11. Orbit [DEC 02]

12. Temporal bone and Internal Auditory Canal.

13. Middle ear.

14. Neck space CT anatomy. [JUN 04]

15. CSF pathways.

16. Blood brain barrier. [DEC 05]

17. Describe normal Anatomy of Knee as seen on MRI. [09]

18. Describe the normal anatomy of coronary arteries and discuss the role of MDCT in coronary artery diseases. [09]

19. Lymphatic drainage of Lungs.

20. Embryology of Gastrointestinal Tract.

21. Embryology of Genitourinary Tract.

22. Embryology of Diaphragm.

23. Radiological anatomy of Larynx and Pharynx.

24. Anatomy and lesions of parapharyngeal spaces.

25. Radiological anatomy of duodenum and relations.

26. Radiological anatomy of pancreas.

27. Peritoneal ligaments and mesentries (pathways of intra-abdominal disease spread).

28. Blood supply of large intestine.

29. Radiological anatomy of carotid artery and branches.

30. Anatomy of the Biliary tree and investigations for evaluation.

31. Anatomy of the Circle of Willis with Diagram. Enumerate the causes of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. [2010]

32. Describe the Embryology and development of pancreas. Describe the imaging features of  any one important     congenital anomaly of pancreas. [2010]

33. Draw a labeled diagram of Broncho-pulmonary segments on CHEST PA and Lateral Radiograph of LEFT LUNG. [Dec 10]

34. Describe anatomical variations in Circle of Willis with the help of a diagram. Enumerate the sites of intracranial aneurysm. [Dec 2010]

35. Describe the basis of Hepatic segmental anatomy. Draw a diagram to depict various hepatic segments. [Dec 2010]

36. Describe the embryogenesis of human urinary system using labelled diagram. briefly discuss the basis of any 3 congenital defects of kidney. [June 11]

37. Describe with help of labeled diagram-vascular anatomy of testes. Explain briefly its clinical relevance in imaging of  testicular malignancies. [June 11]

38. Draw a neat line diagram of perinephric space including its relationship with other spaces. Write CT features of perinephric abscess and urinoma. [4+3+3 June 13]

39. Briefly discuss with diagram the anatomy of Circle of Willis. What are the cause of Sub Arachnoid hemorrhage?. Discuss the role of imaging in a case of SAH. [3+3+4 June 13]

40. Describe with suitable diagram(s) the anatomy of peri & paranephric spaces. Enumerate tumors of perinephric spaces. Describe imaging features in any one of these. [4+2+4 Dec 13]


1.   Breast Masses. [DEC 02]

2.   Indications of X-ray mammography, Sonography & MRI of Breast. [02]

3.   Discuss the recent advances in Mammography. [02]

4.   Mammographic features of Carcinoma Breast. [02]

5.   Sonography in solid breast masses. [June 08]

6.   Benign breast disease . [JUN 04]

7.   MRI in malignant breast lesions. [09]

8.   Conventional mammography techniques.

9.   X-ray Mammographic tube and Breast mammographic views. [DEC 06]

10. Mammography. [DEC 05, JUN 06]

11. Mammographic Tube & Mammography equipment. [JAN 00, DEC 04, JUN 09]

12. Discuss about mammography X-ray unit. [09]

13. Recent developments in mammography X-ray tube. [09]

14. Computer aided detection (CAD) in Mammography. [09]

15. Screening mammography — Current status. [09]

16. Describe BIRADS classification. [09]

17. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast lesions. [09]

18. Describe imaging features of Breast cancer on Mammography, US & MRI. Briefly outline approach (by flow chart) in BIRADS 4 lesion. [June 2011]

19. Discuss the current indications of MRI in breast cancer evaluation. Discuss MRI features of breast cancer. [5+5 Dec 11]

20. Describe the various mammographic techniques in brief, types of mammographic euipments available & current recommendations for its use fr routine screening. [4+3+3 Dec 11]

21. Briefly describe diffusion protocol for MRI breast & characterization of benign & malignant breast lesion. [ 2x2x4 Dec 11]

22. Briefly describe the components if BIRADS system used for reporting of mammograms. Describe the indications and findings of various breast lesions on MRI. [4+2+4 Dec 12]


1. Write short notes on:  [4+2+2+2 Jun 12]
A.What is p value? What is its significance & clinical applications in research?
B. Sensitivity
C. Specificity
D. Positive & negative predictive value.


1.   Doppler ultrasound versus MR angiography of carotid vessels. [JAN 97]

2.   Cardiac and pericardial calcification.

3.   Role of plain skiagram chest in the diagnosis of pulmonary Hypertension. [JUL 97]

4.   Scimitar syndrome. [JUL 97, DEC 06/07]

5.   Pathogenesis of ASD. [JUL 97, 98]

6.   Atrial myxoma. [JUL 98]

7.   Amyloid heart diseases. [98]

8.   Imaging of the extracranial carotid arteries.

9.   Pathogenesis and classification of Dissecting Aneurysm of Aorta.

10.  Coarctation of aorta. [JUL 99; DEC 02,03]

11.  Role of doppler study in lowest extremity arterial disease.

12.  Imaging in aorto-arteritis. [JAN 00, DEC 02]

13.  Causes and imaging features of pericardial effusion. [JAN 01]

14.  Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

15.  Role of Doppler in peripheral arterial diseases.

16.  MRI in cardiac disease. [DEC 02]

17. Tetralogy of Fallot. [02]

18. Pulmonary Stenosis. [02]

19. Imaging in ischaemic heart disease. [DEC 03]

20. Aortic Dissection. OR Imaging and Intervention in Aortic dissection [DEC 02/03/09]

21. Chest X-ray in CHD. [JUN 04]

22.  Plain X-ray cardiomyopathy

23.  MRI in Cardiac Imaging [DEC 04/09]

24.  Pathophysiology & imaging of Mitral valve disease. [DEC 04, JUN 05]

26. Congenital anomalies of aortic arch and major branches.

27. Coronary imaging.

28. Aortic aneurysm & Interventions. [JUN 05, DEC 05/06]

29. Superior Vena Cava obstruction.

30. Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. [DEC 02/05/07]

31. Doppler evaluation of deep veins of leg.

32. Takayasu’s disease or Non-specific aortoarteritis. [JUN 05/06/07]

33. Left to right shunts/Extracardiac Left to Right shunts.[05/06]

34. Enlarged Left atrium. [06]

35. Ebstein’s anomaly. [JUN 07, DEC 09]

36. Radiological approach in Cyanotic heart disease. [DEC 07]

37. Describe the normal anatomy of Cornonary arteries and discuss the role of MDCT in coronary artery disease. [June 2008]

38. Causes & imaging features of constrictive pericarditis. [DEC 09]

39. Enumerate congenital anomalies of IVC. Comment on role of MR I in their diagnosis. [09]

40. MRI of cardiac tumors. [09]

41. Enumerate various types of transposition of great vessels. Describe imaging features of  total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. [09]

42. Interventional management of deep vein thrombosis. [09]

43. Imaging in Intermittent claudication of Lower limb. [02]

44. Imaging in 14 years old with hypertension. [09]

45. Describe diagnostic features on chest radiograph which can help in evaluation congenital heart disease. [09]

46. Imaging of PDA. [09]

47. Assessment of correctness of positioning of various catheters and tubes as seen on chest  radiographs. [09]

48. Cardiac CT. [09]

49. Discuss the role of MR in evaluation of pericardium and its pathologies. [June 2008]

50. What are the causes of pulmonary venous hypertension? Describe plain X-ray findings in pulmonary venous hypertension. [09]

51. Radiological approach in Acyanotic heart disease. [09]

52. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous drainage. [09]

53. Imaging features on chest radiograph of various acyanotic congenital heart diseases. [2010]

54. Classify peripheral vascular malformation. Describe sonographic color doppler, MRI and angiographic features of venous malformation. Mention suitable embolic material for their interventional management. [Dec 2010]

55. Enumerate various tumors of heart. Describe the imaging features of myxoma of heart. [Dec 2010]

55. Describe the venous anatomy of lower limb with the help of a diagram. Describe the technique of color doppler imaging of lower limb veins and imaging features of deep Vein thrombosis. [Dec 2010]

56. Describe the radiological findings of Coarctation of aorta on plain radiograph , barium contrast study , DSA & MRI . Briefly describe role of interventional radiology in it. [June 2011]

57. Describe plain radiographic findings in Rheumatic heart disease in Mitral Stenosis. Mitral regurgitation with mitral stenosis & Aortic stenois. [June 2011]

58.  Classify aortic dissection. Describe the role of CT angiography in diagnosis & management of aortic dissection. [2+5+3 Dec 11]

59. Enumerate causes of acute chest pain in an elderly patient. Briefly describe CT findings in 3 common likely conditions. [1+3+3+3 Dec 11]

60. Classify congenital cardiac abnormalities. Briefly discuss abnormalities of Situs and Looping (or topology) with their imaging features. [2+4+4 Jun 12]

61. Define truncus arteriosus. Mention its types and characteristic features of its various types. Briefly describe its chest radiographic, echocardiographic & MRI findings. [2+2+2+2+2 Jun 12]

62. Enumerate causes of unilateral and bilateral inferior rib notching. Describe chest radiographic, CT chest and angiographic findings in Coarctation of Aorta. Briefly discuss role of interventional radiology inmanagement of Coarctation of Aorta. [2+(2+2+2)+2 Jun 12]

63. How will you radiologically investigate a 60 year old hypertensive & diabetic female presenting with severe chest pain of acute onset? Briefly discuss imaging features of the most common cause for it. Also describe role of radiology in its complications. [3+5+2 Jun 12]

64. Classify right sided aortic arch abnormalities. Draw suitable diagrams to describe these anomalies. Discuss imaging features in dysphagia lusoria. [2+5+3 Jun 12]

65. Enumerate causes and briefly describe the role of imaging in diagnosis and management of thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient below the age of forty years. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

66. Enumerate the radiographic features of enlarged right atrium and enlarged left atrium. Briefly describe lung field changes in case of mitral stenosis [2+3+5 Dec 12]

67. Briefly describe the anatomy of the pericardium. List various causes and imaging findings in a case odd constrictive pericarditis. [2+2+6 Dec 12]

67. Describe the arterial anatomy of carotid vascular system with the help of labeled diagrams. Discuss the role of ultrasound & color Doppler imaging in evaluation of extra cranial carotid occlusive disease. [2+2+6 Dec 12]

68. Enumerate the indications of MDCT coronary angiography. Describe the methods to reduce the radiation dosage to patients during performance of MDCT coronary angiography. [2+8 Dec 12]

69. Enumerate the causes of left atrial enlargement. Discuss its findings on chest radiograph. What other imaging techniques will be useful in making the diagnosis? Briefly highlight the significance of each.  [2+3+2+3 Jun 13]

70. What is Eisenmenger Syndrome? Enumerate the conditions that may produce this syndrome. Discuss its key radiological features. [2+2+6 Jun 13]

71. Enumerate any four clinical conditions which produce a left to right cardiac shunt. Discuss the key radiological features in any two. What would be the radiographic signs of the possible hemodynamic  complications, if the condition remains untreated?. [2+3+3+2 Dec 13]

72. Enumerate the radiologically-evident pericardial afflictions on a chest radiograph. Described their key radiological findings. (2+8 Dec 13)

73. Discuss the diagnostic approach in a 7 year old boy presenting with a progressive pulsatile swelling in the right forearm. Describe the imaging findings with Doppler and MRI. (3+3+4 Dec 13)

74. Discuss the pathophysiology of venous incompetence in lower extremity. What are common locations of perforators? Describe technique & imaging features in Doppler examination of venous incompetency in lower extremity. (2+3+5 Dec 13)

75. What are the indications of coronary CT angiography? Describe the techniques of performing coronary CT angiography. What do you understand by Calcium score & what is its clinical relevance? (2+5+3 Dec 13)



1. Describe briefly the patho-physiology of Pulmonary Embolism. Give in detail the imaging modalities for diagnosis of this entity and their relative merits and demerits. [JAN 97]

2.  Wegner’s granulomatosis [JAN 97, JUN 07]

3.  Pathogenesis and imaging of pulmonary sequestration. [JAN 97, DEC 02, JUN 06, 10]

4.  Role of imaging in bronchogenic carcinoma. [JUL 97]

5.  Discuss in brief the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses and their radiological appearances.

6.   Alveolar Proteinosis. [98]

7.   Anterior mediastinal mass lesions. [02]

8.   Anterior mediastinal masses in children. [09]

9.   Imaging of posterior mediastinal masses. [JUL 99, DEC 03]

10.  Pleural tumours. [JUL 98]

11.  Diagnosis of pulmonary infarction.

12.  Pulmonary oedema. [JUL 99, 02]

13.  Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). [JUL 99, DEC 02]

14.  Sarcoidosis. [JUL 99, DEC 04]

15.  Differentiating features of intra and extra lobar sequestration of lung. [JAN 00]

16.  Pulmonary plethora and its distinctive features.

17.  MRI in bronchogenic carcinoma.

18.  What are clinical applications of CT in evaluation of non-neoplastic lung diseases? [JAN  01]

19.  Pan-acinar Emphysema. [02]

20.  Tracheoesophageal fistula. [DEC 02]

21.  Evaluation and DD of Hilar Mass. [02]

22.  Solitary Pulmonary nodule. [02]

23.  Metastatic tumors of Lung. [02]

24.  Silicosis. [02]

25.  Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis. [02]

26. Ground glass opacity HRCT- Significance and DD. [DEC 02, 03]

27. Unilateral opaque hemithorax. [02]

28. Unilateral Hyperlucent hemithorax. [06]

29. Pulmonary thromembolism. [DEC 03, JUN 06]

30. Imaging in acute chest trauma. [02]

31. Lung lesions in AIDS. [98]

32. Atypical Pneumonia. [JUN 03]

33. HRCT in ILD . [JUN 04]

34. Pulmonary lesions in AIDS .

35. Eventration of diaphragm . [DEC 04]

36. Pulmonary Aspergillosis .

37. Hyaline membrane disease. [DEC 05]

38. Imaging in central bronchogenic carcinoma .

39. Radiology of primary pulmonary Koch’s. [02, JUN 05,06]

40. Salient features of radiology of pulmonary metastases .

41. Raised left Dome of Diaphragm.

42. Radiological feat. in Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of the lung. [JUN 07]

43. Role of chest radiograph & CT chest in AIDS. [DEC 07/09]

44. Anterior mediastinal masses in children.

45. Anterior Mediastinal Masses. [02]

46. Azygos lobe.

47. What are the causes of pulmonary venous hypertension?. Describe plain X-ray findings in pulmonary venous hypertension. [June 08]

48. Discuss pathophysiology and imaging features in respiratory distress in newborn. [June 08]

49. Imaging in pulmonary the thrombo-embolism. [09]

50. MDCT & Scintigraphic evaluation of pulmonary embolism. [09]

51. Enumerate causes of usual interstitial pneumonitis. Describe HRCT Endings in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

52. Discuss in detail imaging features of thoracic lymphoma. [June 08]

53. CT features of Thoracic Lymphoma. [09]

54. Imaging of extra nodal presentations of non Hodgkin lymphomas. [09]

55. Role of imaging in a new born with respiratory distress. [06,09]

56. Discuss pathophysiology and imaging features in respiratory distress in newborn. [09]

57. HRCT in Diffuse lung disease. [06]

58. HRCT in occupational lung diseases. [09]

59. HRCT in pulmonary tuberculosis. [09]

60. Role of chest radiography in emergency situations. [June 2008]

61. DD and imaging features of para-vertebral shadow. [2010]

62. Describe the role of MDCT in staging of carcinoma of lung. [2010]

63. Imaging findings in germ cell tumor of the mediastinum and discuss in brief the DD. [2010]

64. Radiological findings of the Pulmonary complications of HIV infections. [2010]

65. Describe the chest radiograph and HRCT findings in Sarcoidosis. [09, Dec 10]

66. Describe etiopathogenesis, common causes, plain film & CT features of lymphangitis carcinomatosis. [June 2011]

67. Describe plain radiographic and CT findings of rt. upper lobe pulmonary collapse. [June 11]

68. Discuss the role of CT and MRI in staging of lung cancer. [June 2011]

69. Describe the radiological findings of pulmonary complications in pts infected with HIV. [June 11]

70. Classify diaphragmatic hernias. Describe the radiological means to establish the diagnosis with relevant imaging findings. [June 11]

71. Enumerate various germ cell tumors of mediastinum. Discuss their imaging features. [3+7 Dec 11]

72. Enumerate the causes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Give in detail & management of aortic dissection. [3+7 Dec 11]

73. Discuss the etiopathogenesis, imaging features & DD of silicosis. [3+4+4 Dec 11]

74. Define pulmonary sequestration. Describe its types & discuss CT findings & role of angiography in it. [2+1+4+3 Dec 11]

75. Enumerate causes of unilateral hyper-translucency on chest radiograph. Briefly describe plain radiographic and CT findings in a 5 year old child presenting with repeated chest infection and detected to have unilateral hyper-translucency on chest radiograph. [2+4+4 Jun 12]

76.Classify pleural tumours. Briefly discuss chest radiographic & CT  findings of malignant mesothelioma. [3+3+4 Jun 12]

77. Enumerate various diseases caused by inhalation of inorganic dust. Briefly describe chest radiographic & CT findings of two most common such diseases. [2+4+4 Jun 12]

78. How do pulmonary arteriovenous malformation present clinically? Discuss their chest radiographic, CT chest and angiographic findings. Briefly mention role of interventional radiology in their treatment. [2+(2+2+2)+2 Jun 12]

79.  A 25 year old male presented with life threatening haemoptysis. Draw an algorithm to outline management of such a case. Discuss in brief role of chest radiograph, CT scan (with newer advances) and role of  interventional radiology. [2+(2+4+2) Jun 12]

80. Enumerate the causes of superior vena cava syndrome in an adult. Briefly describe the role and findings of various imaging modalities in a case of central bronchogenic carcinoma. [2+8 Dec 12]

81. Describe various HRCT lung findings seen in interstitial lung disease with the help of diagrams. Describe HRCT features of usual interstitial pneumonia. [6+4 Dec 12]

82. Enumerate various causes of respiratory distress in a new born. Briefly describe imaging findings in congenital lobar emphysema and pulmonary sequestration. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

83. Enumerate the causes of hemoptysis in an adult patient. Briefly discuss the indications, techniques and complications of radiological interventions in this conditions. [2+2+4+2 Dec 12]

84.  Define pulmonary edema. What is its pathophysiology? Enumerate its causes. Describe the plain radiographic findings in pulmonary edema. [1+2+3+4 Jun 13]

85. Write imaging findings of the following: a) Bronchial Carcinoid b) BOOP c) McLeod’s Syndrome.

86. Define Sarcoidosis. What are the various stages of thoracic Sarcoidosis? Discuss the radiological manifestations of thoracic Sarcoidosis [2+2+6 Jun 13]

87. What do you understand by the term ‘extramedullary hematopoesis’? Enumerate its causes. Discuss its plain plain film and cross sectional imaging findings. [2+2+3+3 Jun 13]

88. Discuss briefly the pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism. Give in detail the imaging modalities for diagnosis of this entity & their relative merits & demerits. [4+4+1+1 Jun 13]

89. State the radiological basis of differentiating a mediastinal mass from an intra-pulmonary mass. How would you localize the compartment of a mediastinal lesion? Discuss briefly the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lesions in anterior compartment. (2+3+5 Dec 13)

90. A 65 year-old chronic smoker presents with hemoptysis. The chest radiograph shows a well-defined cavitating intrapulmonary mass with spiculated margins in the left upper zone. How would you further evaluate this patient and determine the extent of disease? What would be the signs you would look for to decide if the lesion is operable? [8+2 Dec 13]

91. Describe the changes on a chest radiograph in collapse of different lobes in both lungs. [10 Dec 13]

92. Radiological findings in: a) Sequestration of lung b) Pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. [5+5 Dec 13]


1.  MR contrast media. [JAN 97, DEC 04, JUN 05]

2.  Discuss about various MR contrast media and their mechanism of action. [08]

3.  Low osmolar contrast media. [JUL 97]

4.  Adverse drug reactions caused by I.V. Contrast media. [JAN 01]

5.  Classify idiosyncratic reactions resulting from contrast media administration. Describe the management of life threatening adverse reactions. [08]

6.  Non-ionic contrast media. [DEC 05]

7.  Management of adverse contrast reactions. [JUN 05]

8.  Recent contrast media used in USG. [JAN 00]

9.  Role of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in gastro-intestinal diseases. [JUL 98, DEC 04]

10. Ultrasonography contrast media. (OR) Echo enhancing agents. [JUN 06, 09]

11. Contrast induced nephropathy. [09]

12. MR contrast media in Hepato biliary system/MR contrast agents for Hepatic Imaging. [06/09]

13. Emergency drugs with doses that should be available in radiology department. [09]

14. Adverse reactions of MR contrast media. [2010]

15. Enumerate various ultrasonic contrast media. Describe their principle and clinical application in evaluation of Hepatic mass lesion. [Dec 2010]

16. Write short notes- a. Management of severe contrast reaction. b. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. [5+5 Dec 12]

17. Define contrast nephropathy. Who are the patients at risk? What is the mechanism at work? Outline its time course. What are the key recommendations to check its occurrence?  [2+2+2+2+2 Jun 13]

18. Discuss the role of contrast enhanced MRI and Organ specific MR contrast media. [3+7 Jun 13]



1. Laryngeal carcinoma. [DEC 03, JUN 04]

2. Imaging of temporal bone/Petrous bone. [DEC 05, JUN 06]

3. Describe the imaging features of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Discuss the role of radiological intervention in its management. [6+4 Dec 12]


1.   Radiologic features of gastric malignancies. [JAN 97]

2.   Describe in brief the pathology, role of imaging & radiological features in GI tract lymphomas. [JUL 97, 98]

3.   Necrotising enterocolitis. [JUL 98]

4.   Carcinoid tumours. [JUL 99]

5.   Role of Radiology and Imaging in intestinal ischemia. [JAN 00]

6.   Radiological profile of ulcerative colitis. [JAN 01]

7.   Imaging in a Vomiting infant. [02]

8.   Intervention in upper GI bleeding. [DEC 02]

9.   Imaging in postoperative stomach.

10. Anorectal Malformations. [02]

11. Intusssusception. [02]

12. Gastric lymphoma . [DEC 02/03/06/07]

13. Malabsorption syndrome. [02]

14. Gastrointestinal lymphoma. [JUN 04]

15. USG in appendicitis.

16. Non-tubular inflammatory bowel disease. [DEC 05, 06]

17. Critical appraisal on role of small bowel enema, CT & MRI enteroclysis. [JUN 07]

18. Colonic strictures – etiology and role of imaging in diagnosis of structures. [DEC 07]

19.  Role of CT in Epiploic Appendigitis.

20. Internal Hernias.

21.  Imaging of Acute Appendicitis.

22. Enumerate causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Mention current imaging techniques in their evaluation Describe the role of MDCT in its evaluation. [09]

23. Imaging features of small bowel abnormalities in newborn. [09]

24. CT vs MR enteroclysis for assessment of small bowel diseases. [09]

25. Describe imaging of low intestinal obstruction in a neonate. [09]

26. CT & Endoscopic ultrasound staging of Esophageal carcinoma. [09]

27. Radiological evaluation of suspected Small Bowel obstruction. [09]

28. Describe the technique and ultrasound features in acute appendicitis. Also describe ultrasound features of conditions mimicking acute appendicitis. [June 2008]

29. Discuss various causes and imaging features in stricture of lower end of esophagus. [June 2008]

30. Describe imaging features in a case of intestinal perforation. [2010]

31. Describe the clinical features, sonographic and CT appearances in acute Appendicits. [Dec 2010]

32. Discuss the role of plain radiograph , barium studies , USG & CT abdomen in diagnosis of gastrointestinal TB. [2+3 + 2+3 June 2011]

33. Describe in brief the role of plain radiography , enteroclysis, USG, CT and MRI in evaluation of small bowel  obstruction. [June 2011]

34. Enumerate causes of mesentric ischaemia. Briefly discuss plain radiographic, USG, CT findings and the role of intervention in this condition. [2+2+2+2+2 Dec 11]

35. Name the various motility disorders of esophagus. Discuss pathophysiology and imaging features of cardiac imaging. [2+3+5 Dec 11]

36. Enumerate causes of multiple nodular filling defects in small bowel. Discuss the imaging features of small bowel lymphoma. [3+7 Dec 11]

37. Name the diseases associated with H. pylori infection. Briefly discuss barium meal features of benign & malignant gastric ulcer supported by suitable diagrams. [2+4+4 Jun 12]

38. Enumerate various infections & neoplasms affecting gastrointestinal tract in AIDS. Briefly describe barium meal follow through & CT features of AIDS lymphoma. [3+7 Jun 12]

39. Classify polypoidal lesions of the colon. Mention radiological differences between benign & malignant polyps. Discuss salient imaging features of various types of adenomatous polyps. [2+3+5 Jun 12]

40. Enumerate causes of malabsorption syndrome. Describe imaging features in tropical sprue. Briefly discuss its complications. [2+6+2 Jun 12]

41. Describe technique of MDCT & imaging findings in an 80 year old male presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Briefly discuss its therapeutic implications. Draw a suitable algorithm outlining role of investigative modalities. [3+5+2 Jun 12]

42. Describe normal gastroesophageal junction with the help of suitable diagram. Label various rings & lines visualized on double contrast barium swallow. Discuss imaging features of Schatzki’s ring. [6+2+2 Jun 12]

43. Enumerate the normal & abnormal extrinsic impressions on the cervical & thoracic parts of the esophagus during Barium swallow examination. Discuss the possibilities in a 56 year old woman presenting with dysphagia. Describe briefly the key radiological findings in any 3 conditions. (2+2+2+2+2 Dec 13)

44. A 70 year old man presented with lower GI bleed. Mention various causes of lower GI bleed & briefly describe role of contrast studies, CT scan imaging & intervention in it. (2+2+2+2+2 Dec 13)

45. Describe the technique of MR Enterography. Compare its benefits & limitations vis-a-vis conventional contrast studies & CT eneteroclysis. (5+5 Dec 13)


1.   Differentiation of Renal Cyst and Renal tumour by I.V.P. [JAN 97]

2.   Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder’s Tumours. [97,02]

3.   Discuss the role of imaging in Renal trauma.

4.   Polycystic disease of kidneys. [JAN 97, JUN 04]

5.   Posterior urethral valves. [JUL 97, JUN 06]

6.   Epispadias extrophy complex.

7.   Pathology of renal neoplasms in the paediatric age group.

8.   Acute scrotum [JUL 99, 02]

9.   Cystic diseases of the kidney.

10.  Child with UTI. Provide a protocol for imaging & mention their features. [JAN 00]

11.  How will you investigate a case of painless hematuria? What is role of Radiologist in its management?

12.  Imaging of prostate. [JAN 00, JUN 04]

13.  Prostatic tumors. [JUN 03]

14.  Testicular germ cell tumors. [JAN 01]

15.  Radiological diagnosis of congenital lesions of kidney.

16.  Interventions in upper urinary tract obstruction. [01]

17.  Imaging in renal malignancies. [04]

18.  Role of Doppler in testicular tumor. [DEC 04]

19.  Vesicoureteric reflux. [DEC 04/09]

20.  Nephrocalcinosis. [02,04,06]

21.  Imaging in renal malignancies.

22.  Renal tuberculosis. [DEC 05/07/09, JUN 07]

23.  Ureterocoele. [02, 05]

24.  Discuss the pathology of renal hypertension & radiological investigations for the same. [JUL 98]

25.  Discuss the pathophysiology of renovascular HTN and role of imaging. [02]

26.  Diagnosis of renal hypertension – present day approach . [JUN 05]

27. Imaging in evaluation of renovascular hypertension in a ten year old male. [09]

28. Discuss the role of various imaging modalities in a suspected case of reno vascular hypertension. [June 2008]

29. Imaging of unilateral scrotal swelling.

30. Diagnosis of non malignant prostatic enlargement .

31. Angiomyolipoma of the kidney . [JUN 06]

32. Neurogenic bladder .

33. Unilateral large kidney in a child .

34. Renal Cell Carcinoma. [JUN 04]

35. Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

36. Doppler evaluation in male impotence.

37. Classify cystic diseases of kidney and discuss role of ultrasound in these lesions. [JUN 07]

38. Enumerate causes of unilateral small kidney, Describe the role of imaging in its diagnosis. [DEC 09]

39. Mention ultrasound and Doppler findings in varicocele. Describe the role of intervention in its management. [09]

40. Enumerate the causes of Varicocele. Write US technique and US and color Doppler features in Varicocele. [June 2008]

41. MR staging of prostate carcinoma. [09]

42. Penile doppler. [06]

43. Discuss imaging of erectile dysfunction. [09, 10]

44. Color Doppler evaluation of erectile dysfunction. [June 08]

45. Imaging in Transplant kidney. [02]

46. Enumerate various investigative modalities for the transplanted kidney & give the normal findings in each of them. [JUL 99]

47. Doppler in renal transplant [DEC 02/09, JUN 04]

48. Role of color Doppler and ultrasound in post renal transplant patient. [09]

49. How would you evaluate donor kidney for renal transplant. Discuss role of US & Scintigraphy in various types of renal graft dysfunction. [June 2008]

50. Imaging in Non tubercular renal infections [December 2008]

51.  Non vascular Interventions in upper urinary tract. [09]

52. Embryology, clinical significance and imaging of Undescended Testis. [2010]

53. Indications, imaging features and limitations of imaging in erectile dysfunction. [2010]

54. Describe the blood supply of testes with the help of diagram. Enumerate various types of testicular torsions. Describe imaging findings in each. [Dec 2010]

55. Discuss the etiopathogenesis and radiological features of renal tuberculosis. [Dec 2010]

56. Enumerate the indications and describe the techniques of color doppler in Renovascular hypertension. [Dec 2010]

57. Enumerate various complications of Renal transplant and discuss their imaging findings. [Dec 2010]

58. Enumerate causes of hypertension in 10 yr old male child . Outline radiological approach in such a case. Role of MDCT and intervention in renal hypertension. [June 2011]

59. What is vesico-ureteric reflux. Discuss its causes and grading . Briefly describe role of  imaging in this condition. [June 2011]

60. Enumerate causes of unilateral small Kidney. Discuss role of imaging in establishing the diagnosis. [June 2011]

61. Discuss the role of imaging in uraemia, citing the specific role and limitations of conventional radiography, US, CT, MRI & renal scintigraphy. [June 2011]

62. Discuss the grading of renal trauma. Describe the role of imaging in its evaluation. [4+6 Dec 11]

63. Briefly describe the penile arterial flow physiology. Discuss the technique & utility of duplex sonography in evaluation of erectile dysfunction. [3+4+3 Dec 11]

64. Describe venous drainage of testis. Discuss imaging features & interventions in varicocele. [3+4+3 Dec 11]

65. Enumerate various vascular complications in renal transplant. Briefly discuss the role of color doppler, CT, MRI & intervention in these conditions. [1+3+2+2+2 Dec 11]

66. Briefly describe MRI & MRS findings in prostatic carcinoma & its staging. Discuss role of TRUS biopsy. [4+4+2 Dec 11]

67. What are common causes of medially placed ureters? Discuss various associations. IVU, CT & MRI findings of retroperitoneal fibrosis. [2+2+2+2+2 Jun 12]

68. Enumerate causes of urethral strictures. Briefly discuss role ascending urethrogram in strictures due to trauma. Name common complications of urethral strictures. [3+5+2 Jun12]

69. Enumerate various ovarian tumors of stromal origin. Briefly discuss imaging features of serous & mucinous cystadenocarcinoma & cystadenoma. [3+2+2+3 Jun 12]

70. Describe technique of TRUS guided biopsy of prostate. Briefly mention role of contrast imaging in investigation & biopsy of a prostatic lesion. [8+2 Jun 12]

71. Enumerate the causes of hematuria in a 50yr old male patient. Briefly discuss the role of various imaging modalities in diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

72. Discuss the role of imaging in uremia, citing the specific role and limitation of conventional radiography, sonography, CT, MR & renal scintigraphy. [5+2 Dec 12]

73. List the anatomical sites which may become afflicted in renal TB. Discuss their radiological features in brief. [2+8 Jun 13]

74. A 24 year old with presenting features of low grade fever, lassitude and aseptic pyuria is referred to you for radiological work up. What is the likely diagnosis?. How would you investigate this patient?. Described the key radiological signs, specifying the changes in early, intermediate & late stages of the disease. [1+3+6 Dec 13]

75. A 38 year old RTA victim is brought to you from the casualty with history of frank hematuria. How would you evaluate this patient?. Discuss the possibilities with their key radiological findings. [4+6 Dec 13]

76. Describe penile circulation. What are the causes of male impotence? Discuss the role of Color doppler imaging in impotence. [4+2+4 Dec 13]


1.  Choledochal cyst. [JAN 97, JUL 98, DEC 02/05]

2.  Discuss the etiology, Classification, imaging features and complication of choledochal cyst. [June 2008]

3.  Budd-chiari syndrome. [JAN 97, DEC 04]

4.  Ultrasonography features in cirrhosis liver with portal hypertension. [JUL 98]

5.  Role of imaging in obstructive jaundice. [JUL 99]

6.  Hepatobiliary intervention in Obstructive jaundice. [JUN 03]

7.  Non-Invasive evaluation Of Portal Hypertension. [02]

8.  Discuss Portal Hypertension: its radiological diagnosis & interventional therapy. [JAN 00, DEC 02, 03,05; JUN 06, 09]

9.  Neonatal jaundice. [02]

10. MRCP in obstructive jaundice . [DEC 02]

11. Cystic lesions of liver . [DEC 04]

12. Benign lesions of the liver. [DEC 05, JUN 06]

13. Therapeutic interventions in liver tumors. [JUN 05]

14. Triple phase Portography. [JUN 06]

15. Doppler in hepatic cirrhosis. [DEC 07]

16. Colour Doppler & CT features in portal hypertension. [09]

17. Interventions in Hepatic tumors. [DEC 06]

18. Interventional management of Hepatocellular carcinoma. [09]

19. MRI features of hepatic hemangioma. Briefly discuss role of radiology in treatment of  hepatic haemangioma. [09]

20. Radio frequency ablation of hepatic neoplasm. [09]

21. Describe CT features of liver trauma and discuss role of intervention in this. [June 2008]

22. Enumerate the causes of obstructive Jaundice. Describe technique of MRCP and its role in obstructive Jaundice. [Dec 2010]

23. What is the role of diagnostic imaging modalities in Cholangio.Ca. Discuss the morphological findings & the significance of various modalities in management of the disease. [Jun 11]

24. Enumerate the causes of SOL in liver . Describe the USG features in any 3 of them. [Jun 11]

25. Mention the various interventional techniques used in HCC. Briefly discuss indications & technique of 2 commonly employed techniques. Outline protocol for follow up in a case of HCC. [1+8+1 Dec 11]

26. Enumerate the most common cause of a 6 year old male presenting with hepatomegaly, ascites & features of portal hypertension. Discuss imaging modalities employed to investigate such patients along with various imaging features. Briefly mention role of interventional radiology in its management. [1+7+2 Jun 12]

27. A 15 day old infant has presented with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia accompanied by non pigmented stools. Name the possible etiology. Describe imaging features and various associations that may be seen in such a case. [1+6+3 Jun 12]

28. Enumerate benign hepatic masses. Describe imaging features (USG, CT, & MRI) of two commonly encountered such lesions. [2+4+4 Jun 12]

29. Describe the segmental anatomy of liver in cross sectional imaging. Discuss the role of triple phase CT in differentiating focal lesions in cirrhotic liver. [4+6 Dec 12]

30. Enumerate the common causes of obstructive jaundice. Discuss the role of various imaging modalities in its diagnosis. [2+8 Jun 13]

31. Describe etiopathogenesis of biliary atresia. Discuss the role of ultrasound, MRI & scintigraphy in assessment of biliary atresia. [2+3+2+3 Dec 13]

32. Describe pre-transplant imaging in a liver donor. What are common complications after liver transplant? Discuss the role of intervention in treating complications. [3+2+5 Dec 13]

33. What are various interventional techniques available to treat hepatic malignancies? Discuss the role of chemoembolization & radioembolization in hepatic malignant lesion. [3+4+3 Dec 13]

34. Describe the anatomy of portal venous system. What are the causes of portal hypertension? Describe the role of intervention in portal hypertension. [4+2+4 Dec 13]



1. Thoracic skeletal changes associated with cardio-vascular diseases. [JAN 97]

2. Radiological features in nutritional rickets.

3. Differential diagnosis of expanding lesions of mandible. [JAN 97, JAN 01]

4. Pyknodysostosis.

5. Radiological features of spinal tuberculosis. [JUL 97, JUL 98]

6. Radiological features of congenital syphilis.

7. Neurophatic joints.

8. Radiological features of Osteosarcoma. [98]

9.  DD of generalized decrease in Bone Density. [98]

10.Differential diagnosis of expanding lesions in metaphysis of long bones. [JUL 98]

11. Cleido-cranial dysostosis.

12. Pancoast tumour. [JUL 98, DEC 02,03]

13. Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoartropathy. [JUL 98, JUL 99]

14. Enumerate the causes of Osteoporosis and use of CT in Bone Mineral Studies. [JUL 98]

15. Differential diagnosis of metaphyseal lucent lesions. [JUL 99]

16. Renal osteodystrophy.

17. Pathophysiology of renal rickets. [JAN 00]

18. Psoriatic arthritis.

19. Pathophysiology of Hyperparathyroidism. [02]

20. Radio-diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism. [JAN 00, DEC 03, JUN 04/09]

21. Radiology of Rheumatoid disease. [JAN 01]

22. Cystic jaw lesions . [DEC 02, DEC 03]

23. Perthe’s disease. [02]

24. Expansile lytic lesion at upper end of Tibia. [02]

25. Hand: an index of the disease. [DEC 02, DEC 03]

26. Neurofibromatosis. OR Osseous spectrum in neurofibromatosis. [DEC 02/07/09, JUN 04]

27. Role of Skeletal Radiogrpahy in estimation of age. [02]

28. Bone age estimation [DEC 03]

29. Osteogenesis imperfecta .

30. Solitary dense vertebra. [02]

31. Imaging of Low Back pain. [02]

32. Role of MRI in bone tumors . [DEC 04]

33. Radiology of CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM soft tissues . [DEC 05, JUN 06]

34. Secondary hyperparathyroidism. [JUN 05]

35. Osseous lymphoma.

36. Plain film features of Acromegaly. [02]

37. Techniques for evaluation of Acromegaly . [JUN 06]

38. Basilar invagination . [JUN 05/06]

39. Radiology of a Limping Child. [DEC 06]

40. Imaging features in Mucopolysaccharidosis. [DEC 06, JUN 07]

41. Periosteal Reactions (DD). [DEC 02, 06]

42. Imaging in Tuberous Sclerosis and its associations.

43. Sickle cell disease – radiological appearances. [JUN/DEC 07]

44. Discuss causes of diffuse skeletal sclerosis and role of imaging in it.

45. Sero-negative Spondyloarthropathy. [DEC 07]

46. Differential diagnosis of radiological appearance of absorption of terminal phalanges.

47. MR Imaging of Traumatic knee. [DEC 06]

48. Imaging in Meniscal tear of knee. [09]

49. Role of plain X rays and USG in Congenital Dislocation of Hip jt. [02]

50. MRI in congenital dislocation of hip joint. [09]]

51. MRI in SLAP lesions of shoulder. [09]

53. Rib Notching. [JUN 03]

54. Enumerate various causes of Para vertebral masses and their imaging features. [June 2008]

55. Mention causes of inferior RIB notching. Discuss imaging features of 2 common causes. [09]

56. Describe ossification of bones of elbow. [09]

57. Imaging and associations of Fibrous dysplasia. [09]

58. Briefly discuss imaging of pre-sacral masses in children. [09]

59. Ozone therapy for backache. [09]

60. Imaging findings in Plasma Cell Tumors. [09]

61. Evaluation of Skeletal Dysplasias in utero. [09]

62. Imaging in Rotator cuff lesions. [09]

63. What are round cell tumors of bone? Discuss in detail differentiating imaging features in these. [June 2008]

64. Describe radiological features, complications and differential diagnosis of Paget’s disease. [June 2008]

65. Discuss the techniques, imaging features & limitations of sonographic evaluation of the  rotator cuff [June 2008]

66. Describe different types and imaging features of fractures. What are the complications of fracture? [2010]

67. Define Stress fracture. Enumerate various sites and predisposing factors of stress fracture. Describe various imaging features of stress fractures. [Dec 2010]

68. Describe in brief various imaging features of Osteoid osteoma. Discuss its differential diagnosis. [Dec 2010]

69. Describe the life cycle of hydatid disease causative organisms. Enumerate sites of affection in human beings. Describe imaging features of Musculoskeletal hydatidosis. [Dec 2010]

70. Enumerate causes of Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Discuss its DD & describe its imaging findings on plain radiograph. [Jun 2011]

71. Discuss the radiographic and sonographic features of developmental dysplasia of Hip. [Jun 2011]

72. Describe the MR anatomy of the knee joint. Briefly state the MR sequences you would employ to delineate a suspected medial meniscus tear. [June 2011]

73. Enumerate different varieties of Osteosarcoma. Discuss their imaging features. [3+7 Dec 11]

74. Decribe etiopathogenesis of Osteomyelitis. Discuss role of imaging in acute osteomyelitis. [4+6 Dec 11]

75. Discuss the clinical associations of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy. Briefly describe its radiological findings, Differential diagnosis & role of Nuclear medicine. [3+4+2+1 Dec 11]

76. Classify scoliosis. Discuss imaging features of plain radiographic, CT & MRI in neurofibromatosis of spine. Discuss Cobb’s angle and draw a diagram illustrating its measurement. [2+5+2+1 Jun 12]

77. Mention causes of periosteal new bone formation. Briefly discuss characteristic radiological features of osteomyelitis affecting infants, children & adults. [2+8 Jun 12]

78. Mention differential diagnosis of 15 year boy presenting with localized pain & smelling of 2 months duration in right lower thigh. Discuss conventional radiographic, CT & MRI    features of the commonest primary malignant bone tumor in this age. [1+3+3+3 Jun 12]

79. Classify cysts of jaw. Describe briefly imaging features of each type of cyst. Draw suitable diagrams to describe various types. [2+6+2 Jun 12]

80. Discuss differential diagnosis and imaging features of painless expansile lesion involving single rib in an adult. [3+7 Jun 12]

81. List the causes of posterior scalloping of vertebrae. Describe skeletal changes seen in von Recklinghausen’s disease. [2+8 Dec 12]

82. Enumerate various causes of hemolytic anemia. Describe the imaging findings in a case of Thalassemia major. Briefly discuss its DDs from sickle cell anaemia. [2+5+3 Dec 12]

83. Briefly discuss the path of physiology of osteomalacia. Describe the radiological findings in renal osteodystrophy. Enumerate the findings that help in differentiating from primary hyper parathyroidism. [3+4+3 Dec 12]

84. What is Osteoporosis? Enumerate causes if osteoporosis. Discuss any 3 imaging modalities currently in vogue for assessment of bone mineral density. [2+2+6 Jun 13]

85. What are the key clinical features, common sites & radiological findings in Ewing’s sarcoma? Discuss its differential diagnosis in brief. [2+2+4+2 Jun 13]

85. The Child Welfare Board has referred an accused to you for estimation of age. Being a radiologist, how would you carry out this assignment?. Discuss in brief the variables that  can affect the estimated age. [6+4 Jun 13].

86. Enumerate causes of painful limp in a child unable to bear weight. Briefly discuss the role of plain X-ray, arthrography, US, CT, MRI & scintigraphy in arriving at diagnosis. [2+2+1+1+1+2+1 Jun 13]

87. Discuss the role of plain X-ray, CT & MRI in cases of lower cervical spinal trauma. [3+4+3 Jun 13]

88. Describe the MR anatomy of the shoulder joint. Briefly state the MR sequences you would employ to delineate various lesions of the shoulder joint. [4+6 Jun 13]

89. a. Ossification of elbow joint and its clinical significance. b. Fusion imaging. [5+5 Jun 13]

90. Enumerate any 5 morphological patterns of periosteal reaction & state their clinical significance. [2+2+2+2+2 Dec 13]

91. Discuss the pathophysiology of osteomalacia. Describe imaging features in primary hyperparathyroidism. [5+5 Dec 13]



1.  CT in Neurotuberculosis. [JAN 97]

2.  Discuss the role of computed tomography in cerebrovascular accidents.

3.  Arnold-Chiari malformations. [JUL 97, JUN 04]

4.  Ring lesions on computed tomography of brain.

5.  Neurosonography. [JUL 97, JUN 05]

6.  Discuss the role of computed tomography in infective lesions of brain. [JUL 98]

7.  Radiology and Imaging in Acoustic Neuroma. [98]

8.  Radiological diagnosis of extra-dural spinal masses.

9.  Enumerate the various neuro-cutaneous syndrome & describe imaging in any 2 of these. [JUL 99]

10. C.T. versus M.R.I. in brain tumours.

11. Imaging in congenital lesions of the spine and spinal cord. [JAN 00]

12. Radiology and Imaging of Meningiomas. [JAN 00, JUN 04]

13. Imaging in stroke.

14. Imaging in Acute stroke. [DEC 06]

15. CT and MRI in Intervertebral disc Prolaspse. [02]

16. Discuss the anatomy and anomalies of the Cranio-Vertebral region. How will you assess it Radiologically. [02]

17. White matter disorders OR CT & MRI in white matter diseases OR MRI in CNS white matter disease of Brain. [DEC 02, 03, JUN 04]

18. 4th Ventricular Ependymoma. [JUN 03]

19. Migrational anomaly. [JUN 04]

20. Role of DWI in brain . [DEC 04]

21. Sub Arachnoid space anatomy & SAH. [DEC 02, JUN 03]

22. Radiological investigation in SAH.

23. Intervention in SAH. [DEC 06]

24. Endovascular management of intra-cranial aneurysm. [DEC 05, JUN 06]

25. Imaging of cerebral ischaemic infarct. [JUN 05]

26. Posterior fossa neoplasms of childhood. [02]

27. Lateral ventricular masses. [05]

28. Radiology of brain tumors. [05]

29. Role of Imaging in Leukodystrophies. [DEC 06]

30. Carotico-Cavernous Fistula. [DEC 06]

31. Imaging & Intervention in Intracranial AVM. [JUN 07, DEC 09]

32. Imaging and intervention in spinal anterior-venous malformation.

33. MRI in Alzheimer’s disease.

34. Radiological features in diffuse axonal injury. [DEC 07]

35. Central pontine myelinolysis.

36. Vein of Galen malformation.

37. Glutaric Aciduria Type I.

38. DD of ring enhancing lesions in brain in an immuno-compromised patient. [DEC 09]

39. Intramedullary neoplasms of spinal cord. [09]

40. MRI in intramedullary neoplasms of spinal cord. [09]

41. Clinical applications of Diffusion Tensor imaging. [09]

42. CT & MR findings in acute stroke. [09]

43. CT versus MRI in stroke. [97]

44. Embolization in management of acute hemorrhage. [09]

45. Imaging in dementia. [09]

46. Role of imaging and intervention in Dural Arteriovenous Fistula. [09]

47. Neuro-imaging in AIDS. [DEC 02/06]

48. Radiological features in Neurological Complications of AIDS. [09]

49. Discuss CT and MR features of neurological complications of AIDS. [June 2008]

50. Functional imaging of Brain. [09]

51. Enumerate CP angle tumors & discuss their differentiating features on CT and MRI. [June 2008]

52. Describe MR anatomy of pituitary gland. Discuss in detail MR techniques and features to diagnose pituitary adenomas. [June 2008]

53. Define Spinal Dysraphism. Describe briefly the MR sequences you will use for diagnosis of spinal dysraphism. [2010]

54. Define Infective Discitis. Describe CT, MRI and Isotope imaging features of discitis. [2010]

55. Enumerate various causes of Supra-sellar masses. Describe imaging features in Craniopharyngioma. [2010]

56. Describe MR Imaging features in intra-cerebral Hematoma and techniques of Volume calculation in such a case. [2010]

57. Classify neural tube closure defects. Describe various Chiari malformation and their imaging features. [Dec 2010]

58. Classify brain tumors of children. Describe the imaging features of Primitive Neuroectodermal tumors. [Dec 2010]

59. Describe MR anatomy of Pituitary Fossa with diagram. Describe the radiological diagnosis of Pituitary adenoma. [Dec 2010]

60. Describe the clinical features and MR imaging features of Multiple Sclerosis. [Dec 10]

61. Describe imaging features and intervention in vein of galen malformation. [June 11]

62. Describe the grading , imaging features and differential diagnosis of Glioblastoma multiforme. [June 11]

63. Describe the CT and MRI features of Neurocysticercosis of brain. How would you differentiate from other granulomatous lesions. [June 11]

64. Define acute cerebral stroke. What are its types. Discuss the role of CT and MR imaging in pts with acute stroke, enumerating the techniques that you shall employ and the characteristic findings you would expect. [June 11]

65. Discuss the role of CT in evaluation of patients with acute head injury, staging the types of injury, possible complications and their long term sequalae. [June 11]

66. Enumerate the clinical uses of MR spectroscopy in disorders and diseases of brain . Briefly discuss its role in evaluation of brain tumors. [June 11]

67. Enumerate the cause of SAH. Discuss the role of CT in its evaluation. [2+8 Dec 11]

68. Enumerate causes of demyelinating diseases of spinal cord. Discuss their imaging features and DDs. [2+5+3 Dec 11]

69. Discuss clinical presentation, imaging findings on USG, CT & MRI in Vein of Galen malformation. Briefly discuss its interventional management. [2+2+2+2+2 Dec 11]

70. Enumerate causes of normal intracranial calcifications. Discuss imaging features of pathological intracranial calcifications secondary to infections & infestations. [3+7 Jun 12]

71. Enumerate causes of spinal canal stenosis. Mention normal CT measurement of spinal canal at various levels. Describe plain radiograpnic, CT & MRI features of spinal canal stenosis. [2+2+2+2+2 Jun 12]

72. Enumerate various causes of suprasellar lesions in adults and children Describe plain radiographic, CT & MRI features of Craniopharyngioma. [4+6 Jun 12]

73. Enumerate the causes of cerebral venous thrombosis. Describe CT & MR findings of cerebral venous thrombosis. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

74. Enumerate the causes of enlarged jugular foramen. Describe the imaging findings and role of interventional radiology in management of Glomus Jugulare tumor. [2+5+3 Dec 12]

75. Enumerate the causes of ring enhancing lessons of brain parenchyma in MRI. Discuss the role of DWI & MR spectroscopy in differentiation of various lesions. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

76. Classify neural tube closure defects of brain. Briefly described types of Arnold Chiari malformation & discuss their imaging findings. [2+2+6 Jun 13]

77. Discuss the etiology & characteristic imaging findings in “ring enhancing lesions” of the brain. [ 3+7 Jun 13]

78. What are the common sellar and parasellar lesions?. Describe the key radiological findings in craniopharyngioma on skull radiographs, CT & MRI. [4+2+2+2 Jun 13]

79. A 38 year old man, who has been throwing epileptic seizures, is found to have ring lesions on MRI of brain. Discuss the differential diagnosis. Describe the specific MRI features of any 4 clinical entities which may present with these clinicoradiological findings. [2+2+2+2+2 Dec 13]

80. State the distinguishing features of intramedullar, extramedullary, intradural and extradural spinal lesions on MRI. Discuss briefly the DD’s of intramedullary spinal lesions. [6+4 Dec 13]

81. How would you differentiate between an extra-axial & intra-axial mass lesion on cranial MRI? Describe the radiological findings in the most common extra-axial lesion found in middle aged patients. [4+6 Dec 13]

82. Discuss the types & classification of gliomas. Describe the imaging features of various types of gliomas. Discuss the role of perfusion imaging in gliomas. [3+5+2 Dec 13]


1.  Radio nuclide imaging of the C.N.S. [JAN 97]

2.  Radio isotope scanning in thyroid disease.[JUL 97, 02]

3.  Isotope imaging of the Parathyroids. [02]

4.  Radio nuclide imaging of urinary tract.

5.  Isotopes in Myocardial ischaemia OR Scintigraphy in ischaemic Heart disease OR Role of nuclear medicine in ischaemic heart disease. [JUL 98, DEC 02/ 05]

6.  99m Tc labeled N – substituted Imino-diacetic acid (HIDA) Scan.

7.  Role of scintigraphy in liver diseases. [JUL 99]

8.  Radio-isotope scanning in cardiac lesions. [JAN 01]

9.  Nuclear medicine in liver imaging [DEC 02]

10.Clinical application of radionuclide Renography. [02]

11. Renogram. [DEC 03]

12. Bone scan. [DEC 05]

13. GI Scintigraphy. [JUN 05]

14. Outline of radio-isotopes available. [JUN 06]

15. Radioistopes in Cardiac imaging. [09]

16. Radionuclide bone Scintigraphy in infective disorders. [09]

17. Application of DMSA Scintigraphy. [09]

18. Scintigraphy evaluation of Gastro-intestinal bleeding. [09]

19. Fusion imaging. [09]

20. PET [DEC 04, JUN 05]

21. Principles and role of PET in clinical radiology. [June 2008]

22. Describe Radiopharmaceuticals used in PET CT with their clinical applications. [09]

23. Radionuclide scanning in a bony lesion. [09]

24. Enumerate various radio-isotopes used in Hepato-Biliary system. Describe the imaging features and techniques in Biliary atresia. [Dec 2010]

25. Describe the role of scintigraphy in cardiac imaging with emphasis on myocardial perfusion and viability. [June 2011]

26. Enumerate the indications of scinitigraphic evaluation in GI bleed. Briefly discuss technique, radioisotopes used & interpretation of results. [2+4+2 Dec 11]

27. Enumerate indications & radio-isotopes used for radionuclide scanning of lungs. Briefly describe 3 techniques of isotope imaging of lung with their clinical implications. [(2+2)+(2+2+2) Jun 12]

28. List the indications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in children and adults. Describe briefly the principle, technique & findings on scintigraphy in a car off neonatal jaundice. [2+2+2+4 Dec 12]

29. Briefly describe the stop pathogenesis of choledochal cyst. Enumerate various types of choledochal cyst. Discuss the role of imaging in Caroli’s disease. [2+3+5 Dec 12]

30. a. Radio isotope scanning of the skeletal system. b. Clinical applications of 3D and 4D ultrasound. [5+5 Jun 13]

31. Discuss the role of scintigraphy in cardiac imaging with special emphasis on myocardial perfusion and viability. [10 Jun 13]

32. What is the principle of PET scanning? Briefly discuss the role of FDG-PET scanning & importance & clinical utility of two non-FDG molecules of PET scanning. [2+4+4 Dec 13]

33. a) Renal isotope scanning b) Tomosynthesis in mammography. [5+5 June 14]


1.   Imaging of Intra Uterine Foetal Death. [JAN 97]

2.   Discuss the role of imaging in uterine lesions. [JUL 97]

3.   Endometriosis. [JUL 98, DEC 04, JUN 07]

4.   Ectopic Pregnancy. [JUL 99, DEC 05]

5.   Alimentary tract lesions diagnosable in-utero

6.   Role of Sonography in I.U.G.R.

7.   Imaging of the placenta [JAN 00]

8.   Write in detail US features of placental evaluation. [June 08]

9.   Sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. [JAN 01]

10.  PCOD. [02]

11.  Imaging in Infertility . [DEC 02, 03]

12.  Endometrium in USG. [JUN 03]

13.  Biophysical score . [DEC 03, JUN 04]

14.  Uterine interventions . [DEC 05]

15.  PNDT [DEC 05/06/07]

16.  MRI in gynecologic imaging.

17.  Cystic lesions of ovaries. [JUN 05]

18.  Sonography of cystic ovarian masses. [09]

19.  Doppler evaluation in IUGR . [JUN 05,06]

20.  Radiological evaluation of delayed milestones. [JUN 06]

21.  Role of USG in assessment of prenatal genitourinary tract. [ DEC 06]

22.  Antenatal detection of Vein of Galen malformation. [06]

23.  Antenatal MRI. [JUN/DEC 07]

24.  Sonography of cystic ovarian masses.

25.  CT – Pelvimetry.

26.  Enumerate markers of chromosome abnormality on antenatal ultrasound. Briefly discuss their sonographic features. [09]

27. Transvaginal scan in female infertility. [09]

28. USG in female Infertility [December 2008]

29. Uterine artery embolisation. [December 2008]

30. Describe the sonographic findings favouring the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and its DD. [2010]

31. Enumerate the vascular and structural abnormalities of the Umbilical cord. Describe the velocity waveform changes seen in the umbilical artery Doppler. [2010]

32. Enumerate the causes of infertility. What is the role of imaging in assisted reproduction. [Dec 2010]

33. Define fetal hydrops. Enumerate its causes. Describe sonographic and color doppler findings noted in this condition. [Dec 2010]

34. Discuss the sonographic techniques and criteria used in evaluation of uterine cervical incompetence. [Dec 2010]

35. Enumerate the common locations of ectopic pregnancy in order of frequency. Discuss the sonographic findings of ectopic pregnancy. [Dec 2010]

36. Describe the role of imaging in recurrence of ovarian malignancy after surgery. [Dec 2010]

37. Enumerate conditions under which the revised PNDT act 2010, permits you to conduct prenatal  diagnostic techniques . What steps would you take in clinical USG practice to comply with the act. [June 2011]

38. Outline the diagnostic imaging approach in a pt. with Ovarian malignancy. Describe imaging features,  staging & impact of cross sectional imaging in ovarian cancer. [June 2011]

39. Define abnormal endometrial thickening. Enumerate its causes & discuss their imaging features. [2+2+6 Dec 11]

40. List various causes of female infertility. Discuss the role of HSG & MRI in their evaluation. [2+4+4 Dec 11]

41. List various causes of bleeding in first trimester. Discuss their sonographic features. [2+8 Dec 11]

42. Enumerate various color doppler parameters used in IUGR. Briefly discuss their role in IUGR. Mention the significance of aortic isthmic index. [2+6+2 Dec 11]

43. Describe measurement technique & normal values of nuchal translucency. Briefly discuss its role in Trisomy 21 & other chromosomal anomalies. [4+2+2+2 Dec 11]

44. Describe various fetal Doppler parameters used to assess fetus at risk of IUGR. Discuss recent advances as regards their significance in predicting fetus at risk. [6+4 Jun 12]

45. List various indications of MRI examinations in obstetrics. Outline various sequences used along with their rationale. Briefly describe MRI findings in two conditions presenting obstetric emergencies. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

46. List the causes of post menopausal bleeding. Briefly describe the role of various imaging modalities highlighting their advantages and pitfalls. Describe the MRI findings in a case carcinoma cervix. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

47. Enumerate various causes of female infertility. Describe the role of HSG & MRI in their diagnosis. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

48. Write short notes on: [5+5 Dec 12]
B. Conventional lead apron and zero lead apron.

49. What is ‘placenta accreta’? What are its types? Which imaging modalities would be useful in its diagnosis? Briefly describe the imaging features of each imaging modality?[1+1+2+6 Jun 13]

50. Enumerate the factors the enhance the risk of ectopic pregnancy. What would be its classic clinical signs? Discuss the role of USG in its diagnosis highlighting the key imaging features. [2+2+6 Jun 13]

51. A 19 year old girl is referred with complaint of primary amenorrhea from the Department of Gynecology. As a radiologist, how would you evaluate her? Enlist the radiological investigations that might be beneficial to her, enumerating the precise entities you might identify with each. Describe the key radiological findings in any one clinical condition which may present as primary amenorrhea. [2+5+3 Dec 13]

52. A 26 year old patient, who is 12 weeks post-partum, is referred to you for radiological appraisal with a history of bleeding per vaginum & raised beta-HCG levels. What is the likely diagnosis?. How would you evaluate this patient?. Discuss the possibilities with their key radiological findings. [1+3+6 Dec 13]

53. How would you decide on the amnionicity & chorionicity in twin pregnancies? Enumerate the various complications that may occur in a twin pregnancy. Describe the various radiological findings in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. [4+2+4 Dec 13]

54. Define IUGR. Enumerate its causes. Discuss the role of imaging in management of IUGR. [1+2+7 June 14]

55. Enumerate & classify various congenital anomalies of the uterus. Discuss the role of US & MRI in their diagnosis, highlighting their advantages & limitations. [3+7 June 14]

56. Enumerate various MRI sequences used for evaluation of the uterus, highlighting their specific role. Describe the role of MRI in suspected carcinoma cervix along with their MR findings. [4+6 June 14]



1. Endocrine tumours of the pancreas. [JUL 98]

2. Pancreatic pathology. [DEC 02]

3. Classification & Imaging of Neuroendocrine tumors of pancreas. [DEC 04/09]

4. Grading of Pancreatitis and its relevance. [02]

5. CT in Pancreatitis . [JUN 04]

6. Acute Pancreatitis . [JUN 05]

7. Pancreatic Endosonography.

8. Image guided interventions in pancreatic disease. [09]

9. Radiological features in cystic tumors of pancreas. [09]

10. Classify pancreatic neoplasms. Describe imaging features in a case of carcinoma head of pancreas. [Dec 2010]

11. Discuss the role of CT in evaluation of pt. with ac. pancreatitis, outlining the technique , CT signs , assessment of disease severity and its relationship to outcome of pt. [Jun 2011]

12. What is Pancreatic divisum?. Briefly discuss its embryologic basis & clinical significance. What are ERCP, MRCP & MDCT findings. [2+3+5 Dec 11]

13. Enumerate various pancreatic masses of childhood. Discuss their imaging features & DDs of pancreatoblastoma. [2+5+3 Dec 11]

14. Briefly describe embryological development of pancreas. Describe various anomalies & variations in its development with the help of  suitable diagrams. Discuss imaging features (on barium meal & CT scan) of annular pancreas. [4+3+3 Jun 12]

15. Enumerate various indications of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic sonography. Briefly discuss it’s role in evaluation of pancreatic pathologies outlining the advantages & disadvantages. [2+8 Dec 12]

16. Discuss the technique & role of CT in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis [2+8 Jun 13]


1.   Technical parameters of an x-ray equipment for fluoroscopic procedures.

2.   Basic construction of an x-ray tube and recent advances.

3.   Principle of doppler ultrasound and its application in neck ultrasound.

4.   Factors affecting quality of a radiograph. [JUL 97, JAN 01, DEC 04]

5.   Name the various interactions of X-ray photons with matter. Describe any two.

6.   Focal spot in a diagnostic x-ray tube. [JUL 99, DEC 02]

7.   Ultrasound image artifacts.

8.   Image Intensifier. [JAN 00, DEC 02, 03]

9.   Discuss the Biological effects of Radiations and the measures taken against its protection for Radiation workers and patients in Radio-diagnosis dept. [JAN 01, DEC 05, JUN 06]

10. Define principles of radiation protection. Describe various parameters which can reduce patient radiation dose in radiography and fluoroscopy. [09]

11.  Measures to decrease radiation dose to patient. [02]

12.  AERB guidelines for Radiation safety. [DEC 06]

13.  Ionizing radiation in bone.

14.  Intensifying screens. [DEC 02/04; JUN 06]

15.  Portable radiography [DEC 03]

16.  Principles of colour doppler sonography. [02]

17.  MDCT technology. [DEC 02/03/04]

18.  X-Ray film & Types of films used in Radiology. [DEC 02, 03, 04]

19.  Construction of a conventional X-ray film & functions of each layer. [02]

20.  Composition of X-ray films Discuss about different parameters which influence film contrast. [09]

21.  Properties of Xrays. [02]

22.  Medical X ray films processing chemicals. [02]

23.  High generator transformer. [DEC 04]

24.  Radiation monitoring devices.

25.  Radiation scatter. [DEC 05, JUN 04]

26. Define scatter radiation. Discuss briefly the parameters which influence scatter radiation and methods to reduce scatter radiation.

27. Rare earth screens.

28. New MR pulse sequences

29. X-ray beam restrictors. [DEC 06, 09]

30. Motion and pulsation artifacts in MRI

31. Adverse effects of radiation .

32. Cine fluoroscopy

33. Grids [DEC 05/07]

34. Cardiac CT. [JUN 05]

35. Radiation dose reductions in CT .

36. Darkroom illumination.

37. Modern rotatory x-ray tube .

38. PACS – picture archival and communication system.

39. TLD – Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter .

40. Filters and filtrations .

41. MR coils.

42. Design and setup of a radiology department OR Setting up a radiology department in a 200 bedded hospital [JUN 05/06]

43. Film artifacts. [02/05]

44. Electrical circuits of x-ray machine .

45. Safety hazards in MRI.

46. Steps to improve the quality of a chest X-ray .

47. Radiological management of Bomb-Blast injury.

48. Maximum permissible radiation dose.

49. Define principles of radiation protection. Describe various parameters which can reduce patient radiation dose in radiography and  fluoroscopy. [June 2008]

50. Photoelectric effect andf its application in diagnostic radiology. [09]

51. Film contrast. [09]

52. Dosimeters used for radiation monitoring. [09]

53. Radiation dose in various examinations using MDCT. [09]

54. Computed radiography cassette. [09]

55. PACS in radiology. [09]

56. Genetic Screening. [09]

57. Planning considerations for installation of 50O mA X—ray machine. [09]

58. Composition of X-Ray films. Discuss about different parameters which influence film contrast. [June 2008]

59. Define basic units of radiation exposure. List recommended dose limits for radiation worker & general public. [09]

60. Define the basic units of radiation exposure. Describe biological effects of radiation. [08]

61. Discuss about mammography X-ray unit. [June 2008]

62. Legal responsibilities and duties of radiologist in clinical practice. [09]

63. Doppler artifacts and pitfalls. [08]

64. Define quality assurance. Discuss the organization of a quality assurance program pertaining to radiology equipment. [08]

65. Principles and clinical applications of dual energy CT. [08/2010]

66. Enumerate, various interactions of X-ray photons with matter. Describe any 2 in brief [2010]

67. Rare earth screens. [2010]

68. Define scatter radiations. Comment briefly on the parameters which influence scatter radiation and methods to reduce scatter radiation. [2008/2010]

69. Define Roentgen. Mention various recommendations on maximum permissible dose for patients and staff members in Radiology department. [2010]

70. Describe the basis of BOLD imaging. Write its utility and limitations. [2010]

71. Write in brief the principle and types of Digital radiography. Outline its advantages and disadvantages. [2008/2010]

72. Define and classify radiographic Grids. Describe their various uses in radiography. [Dec 2010]

73. Define radiographic contrast. Describe various factors that affect radiographic contrast. [Dec 2010]

74. Describe AERB guidelines on X-ray room installation. [Dec 2010]

75. Describe the various techniques you will employ to reduce patient and operator radiation dose in CT angiography. [Dec 2010]

76. Enumerate basic properties of X rays. Describe factors affecting scatter radiation and techniques to minimise scatter radiation. [June 11]

77. Brief outline the evolution of present day CT scanners citing the key specific changes through different generations. [June 11]

78. While conducting a conventional diagnostic radiographic procedure under fluoroscopic guidance , what steps would you take to reduce radiation dose to pt. what measures would you take to safeguard yourself. [Jun 11]

79. Discuss briefly the principle of MR spectroscopy. Enumerate its clinical significance in any three clinical settings , outlning explicity how it would be useful. [June 11]

80. Discuss various dose reduction techniques in MDCT. Mention the average radiation doses received for common examination using MDCT. [Jun 11]

81. Define Doppler effect. Briefly describe color doppler and power doppler modes of imaging. Enumerate advantages of each mode. [1+4+5 Dec 11]

82. Describe major components of a PACS system and their functions in brief. [10 Dec 11]

83. Define film contrast. Enumerate various factors affecting film contrast. Briefly discuss methods to improve it. [2+4+4 Dec 11]

84. Describe in brief components & their function of a rotating X-ray tube. Draw its neat diagram & label its components. [5+5 Dec 11]

85. Discuss various statutory requirements to be followed for installation of following radiological equipments: [4+3+3 Jun 12]
A. 1000 mA x-ray machine
B. CT scan
C. DSA Lab

86. Describe various measures to reduce radiation exposure to patients as well as personnel performing fluoroscopically guided vascular interventional procedures in DSA Lab. [10 Jun 12]

87. Write short notes on:  [3+3+4 Jun 12]
A. Heel effect
B. Genetic effect of radiation
C. Conventional lead apron & zero lead apron

88. Write short notes on the following: [4+3+3 Jun 12]
A. Factors affecting scatter radiation and different techniques to minimize them.
B. Radiographic contrast
C. Properties of x-rays

89. Write short notes on : [3+3+4 Dec 12]
A. Photoelectric effect & its role in production of radiographic image.
C. Mammographic X-ray tube.

90. Describe the construction of an X-ray tube with the help of a labeled diagram. Discuss the mechanism of production of X-rays. Enumerate the properties of X-ray. [3+4+3 Dec 12]

91. a. Rare earth screens. b. Green sensitive film. c. Dual energy substractions. [3+3+4 Jun 13]

92. Define Roentgen. Mention various recommendations of maximum permissible dose for patients & staff members of the Radiology department. [2+4+4 June 13]

93. Enumerate various interactions of X-ray photons with matter. Discuss any two in details with their significance in radiology department. [3+3+4 June 13]

94. Describe AERB guidelines for X-ray & CT installation. [5+5 June 13]

95. a) AERB guidelines for installation of X-ray equiptment. b) Thermoluminiscent dosimeter [5+5 Dec 13]

96. a) Quality of radiologic images b) Different types of x-ray tubes. [5+5 Dec 13]

97. Describe in detail various requirements of quality control programme in radiology department. [10 Dec 13]

98. Enumerate the different types of X-ray tubes. What is the difference between a conventional X-ray tube and a mammography tube? Briefly describe mammography tube with the help of a neat labeled diagram. [2+4+4 June 14]

99. What are the cardinal principles of radiation protection? What methods would you use to decrease exposure in fluoroscopy? [6+4 June 14]

100. a)Personal Dosimeters b) Tissue Harmonic imaging. [5+5 June 14]

101. a) MR contrast for liver imaging b) Contrast induced nephropathy and methods to prevent it. [5+5 June 14]

102. Advances in CT technology to decrease the radiation dose in children. What is CT dose index (CTDI). [8+2 June 14]



1. Describe the positioning for various skull x-ray views.

2. Conventional skull radiography.

3. Radiography of the Jugular Foramen. [DEC 06]

4. Base of Skull.


1. Investigation in a case of exophthalmos. [JAN 00]

2. Imaging of posterior fossa. [JAN 01]

3. Orbit. [DEC 02]

4. Orbital tumours . [DEC 03, JUN 04]

5. USG in retinal retinal & choroidal detachment. [02]

6. Orbital pathologies. [JUN 04]

7. Imaging in unilateral exophthalmos. [DEC 07]

8. Ocular blood flow in normal and Glaucomatous eye on color Doppler imaging.

9. Enumerate causes of orbital masses. Discuss imaging features of two common causes in an adult. [09]

10. Classify orbital lesions in relation to various orbital spaces. Discuss MR features in orbital pseudo tumors. [June 08]

11. Enumerate causes of unilateral proptosis. describe imaging findings of optic glioma and caroticocavernous fistula. [June 11]

12. Describe in brief anatomy of sella turcica. Enumerate various sellar and parasellar masses. Discuss imaging features of craniopharyngioma. [3+2+5 Dec 11]

13. Enumerate various indications of orbital ultrasound. Discuss the role of ultrasound & color Doppler in a case of white reflex in a child. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

14. Enumerate the cause of solitary lytic lesion in the skull. Describe the distinguishing radiological features of any three. [4+6 Jun 13]


1.   Spiral CT and its major applications. [JAN 97]

2.   Ultrasound transducers and their applications.

3.   Developments in ultrasound transducer technology. [09]

4.   Xeroradiography.

5.   High resolution CT and its major applications. [97, 05]

6.   MR Spectroscopy. [JUL 97, DEC 02/05/06]

7.   Automatic processing & Automatic Film Processor (AFP). [JUL 97, JAN 00, DEC 02/05]

8.   3D CT angiography. [JUL 98]

9.   Digital radiography. [DEC 05/06, JUN 05]

10.  Flat panel digital radiography.

11.  What is digital radiography? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages. [09]

12.  Computed radiography and digital radiography. [DEC 05, JUN 06]

13.  ERCP. [02]

14.  MRCP. [JUL 99, DEC 03]

15.  MRCP vs ERCP

16.  Small bowel enema.

17.  Tissue Harmonic imaging. [JAN 01, DEC 04]

18.  MRI Urography. [DEC 02]

19.  MR Venography.

20. MR angiography. [JUL 97, DEC 02/04, JUN 06]

21.  MRA in lower limb arteries

22.  Discuss the role of C.T. angiography, its indications, advantages and limitations. [JAN 01]

23.  CT angiography and its application in abdomen. [DEC 05, JUN 06]

24.  Principles of CT angiography.

25.  CT angiography – present status [JUN 06]

26.  Methods of contrast administration for CT angiography. [09]

27.  CT angiography vs MR angiography.

28.  Virtual endoscopy.

29. Virtual Colonoscopy. [DEC 05/07, JUN 05]

30. Virtual bronchoscopy . [DEC 05, JUN 06, DEC 09]

31. CT Coronary angiography.

32. Intra-operative USG. [DEC 04]

33. TRUS.

34. Trans-rectal and Trans-Perineal USG in elderly patients. [06]

35. Sonohysterography.

36. Discuss principle, various techniques of elastography and their clinical applications. [June 08/2010]

37. Peripheral venous doppler.

38. DSA.

39. Intravascular Ultrasound. [06]

40. Full field Digital Mammography. [06]

41. Radiofrequency Ablation [clinical application and principle]. [03, 06]

42. Percutaneous vertebroplasty. [06]

43. Outline of techniques in functional MRI. [JUN 06]

44. Diffusion weighted MRI. [08]

45. Dry view laser camera. [06]

46. Clinical applications of 3T MRI. [06]

47. Discuss the procedure for Barium Enema.

48. Technique of Double Constrast Barium Enema. [02] Enumerate the DD and imaging features of Hepatic flexure mass. [2010]

49. MR enteroclysis – techniques, indications and applications. [02, 2010]

50. MRI in Cardiac Imaging OR MR sequences in Cardiac Imaging. [JUN/DEC 07]

51. Vertebroplasty in non-infective vertebral collapse.

52. Tomosynthesis and its clinical applications. [09]

53. Volume ultrasound. [09]

54. Discuss indications, technique and complication of bronchial artery embolisation. [June 2008, 10]

55. PACS. [DEC 06]

56. Describe the principle and types of bone densitometry. Outline the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each type. [2010]

57. Enumerate the various gradient echo sequences. Describe in brief the principle and their clinical applications. [2010]

58. Describe techniques of MRCP. What are the advantages and disadvantages of MRCP vs ERCP. [2010]

59. Techniques and applications of CT colonography. [2010]

60. Write in brief the principles of Radio frequency ablation [RFA]. Enlist its indications, contraindications and complications   in management of Hepatocellular carcinoma. [2010]

61. What are the advantages of 3T MRI over 1.5T MRI ?. Comment on its limitations. [2010]

62. What is the principle of diffusion weighted imaging and its role in evaluation of breast masses. [2010]

63. Enumerate the indications of foetal MRI. Comment on its limitations. [2010]

64. Write in brief about problem of storage requirements in PACS. Describe its solutions. [2010]

65. Describe briefly indications, technique, complications and post procedure follow up of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt. [Dec 10]

66. Describe the technique of CT enteroclysis. Enumerate its indications, advantages and limitations. [Dec 10]

67. Describe the technique of CT coronary angiography. Draw a labeled diagram of normal coronary arteries. Mention the major anatomical variants. [Dec 10]

68. What is molecular imaging and describe its role in musculoskeletal system. [Dec 10]

69. Describe the technique of MR Arthrography. Enumerate its indications, advantages and limitation. [Dec 10]

70. What do you understand by perfusion imaging?. Describe briefly CT and MR perfusion imaging techniques. [Dec 10]

71. Enumerate various endoscopic ultrasound imaging techniques. Describe common endoscopic ultrasound imaging features in esophageal disease. [Dec 10]

72. Write in brief about the technique, indications, contra-indications and complications of Radiofrequency ablation in hepatic and biliary lesions. [Dec 10]

73. What do you understand by tissue harmonic imaging . How is it useful during sonographic evaluation of small parts of body. [June 11]

74. Define High Intensity Focussed Ultasound . Describe its clinical applications. [June 11]

75. Describe principle of Dual energy CT, different techniques of dual energy acquisition & various applications. [3+2+5 Dec 11]

76. Discuss the principle, components, advantages & limitations of Digital Radiography. [1+4+3+2 Dec 11]

77. Describe principle of ultrasound elastography and its clinical applications. Briefly discuss its usefulness in evaluation of BIRAD 3 lesions. [(4+3)+3 Jun 12]

78. Describe the physical principles of PET-CT. Discuss the role of computed tomography & PET-CT in diagnosis post-treatment evaluation of lymphoma. [2+4+4 Dec 12]

79. Describe the physical principles of CR & DR. Briefly discuss their advantages & disadvantages. [3+3+2+2 Dec 12]

80. Briefly describe the physical principle of radio frequency ablation. Enumerate it’s applications. Discuss the role of radio frequency ablation in management of osteoid osteoma. [2+2+6 Dec 12]

81. Write short notes on: [5+5 Dec 12]
A. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma.
B. Pressure injector

82. Define strain and shear wave elastography. Discuss its role in breast, prostatic and musculoskeletal lesion. Compare its sensitivity and specificity with MR elastography. [2+6+2 Jun 13]

83. a) CT vs MR Urography. b) CT vs MR Enteroclysis [5+5 Jun 13]

84. Discuss the recent advances in MDCT. What are the various dose reduction techniques in MDCT?. Mention average radiation dose received for common examinations using MDCT. [4+4+2 Jun 13]

85. a. Principle of Digital radiography. b. Clinical applications of molecular imaging. [5+5 Jun 13]

86. a. MR artefacts b. CT artefacts. [5+5 Jun 13]

87. Discuss the following: a. BOLD Imaging b. Genetic Screening c. PACS in Radiology. [3+3+4 Jun 13]

88. Write short notes on: 1) MR tractography 2) Dual energy scanning in musculo-skeletal system. (5+5 Dec 13)

89. Write short notes on: 1) CO2 angiography 2) Transcranial sonography in stroke (5+5 Dec 13)

90. Write short notes on: a) Flat panel detector b) HIFU-Clinical indications & utility. [5+5 Dec 13]

91. Write short notes on: a) Mobile CT scanner b) Renal denervation for renovascular hypertension. [5+5 Dec 13]

92.  a) MR-PET b) Dose reduction techniques in MDCT. [5+5 Dec 13]

93. a) Imaging of hemobilia and interventions b) Principles & applications of RF ablation. [5+5 June 14]

94. a) CT perfusion in acute stroke b) Principles of functional MRI. [5+5 June 14]

95. Techniques of ultrasound elastography & its applications. [5+5 June 14]

96. Advantages & disadvantages of computed radiography & direct digital radiography. [10 June 14]



1. Role of USG in thyroid diseases. [JAN 97]

2. Imaging in thyroid pathology. [JAN 00]


  1. Thanks a lot sir …. I had printout of these questions from my seniors …. but came across your original blog today…. thank god , he gave me chance to say thanks to you:D

  2. I am visiting the site for first time, i feel I should have find it long time back. It is very very useful for all radiology PGs.Thanks a lot!

  3. this is a excellent work done.
    thank you very much
    i am exam going in june 2011
    i was in a real need of this.

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